By Zaira Khalilova.
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Extra info for A grammar of Khwarshi
Gender 4 can be considered as the gender of abstract notions and liquids. ). g. q’adarLi ‘meanness’, karamaLi ‘magic’,etc. ), though nouns such as raLad ‘sea’, k’ara ‘lake’ are found in Gender 3. All nouns denoting animals’ young are in Gender 5. Though there are exceptions like kuc’a ‘bird’, ]a]ant’u ‘butterfly’ which are found in this gender as well. g. g. g. g. gId ‘dress’, etc. In the plural the distinction is made between human plural, which includes plural nouns of Gender 1 and Gender 2, and non-human plural, which comprises plural nouns of Gender 3, Gender 4, and Gender 5.
UW iLe. 049] 6. ABS kandaba. ‘Once upon a time there were beautiful girls’. 7. ABS girl(II) mada-]ul. 1. Gender assignment Assignment may depend on two basic types of information about the noun: its meaning (semantics) and its form. Information about the form may be of two kinds – word structure comprising derivation and inflection (morphology) and sound structure (phonology) (Corbett 1991: 7). Khwarshi like many other Daghestanian languages uses the semantic factor to a greater degree than morphological and phonological factors.
LAT’ The ejective consonant /p’/ is very rare across the language, and there are no examples with final occurrences of /p’/. e. in the onomatopoetic verb b^aaaSa ‘to bleat’. g. xcul ‘intention’, baybixcida ‘to begin’1. g. waaza ‘to preach’). This phoneme /w/ also occurs as a gender/number suffix in loan adjectives (cf. 2) and as an infix in demonstrative pronouns (cf. 2). Note that small Cb with velar and uvular consonants presents labialization (see the labialization section below), though phonologically it might be analyzed as a phoneme sequence Cw.
A grammar of Khwarshi by Zaira Khalilova.